Undergraduate Research

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2010 Undergraduate Research

2011 Undergraduate Research

2012 Undergraduate Research

 

2013 Undergraduate Research Presentations

 

 

 

 

 

Relationship between Rate of Perceived Exertion and Blood Lactate Concentration in Female Cross Country Runners 

Anna Krieger, Mary C. Stenson, Donald V. Fischer

College of Saint Benedicts, St. Joseph, MN/Saint John's University, Collegeville, MN

Poster presented at the American College of Sports Medicine National Conference in Indianapolis, IN, June 2013

Previous studies have found a strong correlation between the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate levels. However, the strength of this relationship has been shown to depend on the population. The purpose of this study was to examine how closely the RPE corresponds to blood lactate concentration in Division III female cross country runners during a progressive treadmill test. Fourteen Division III female cross country runners participated in this investigation. All participants finished in the top half of a 2.5 mile time trial at the beginning of the season. Each performed a progressive treadmill test to assess blood lactate levels and RPE, with blood sampling every two minutes. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant, positive correlation between RPE and blood lactate levels [r(157) = .849, p < .001]. The strength of the relationship between RPE and blood lactate concentration in female cross country runners is stronger than that found in other active populations, such as soccer players. The results provide additional evidence that blood lactate concentration may be a physiological mediator for perception of exertion during dynamic exercise and may serve as a stronger mediator for female cross country runners compared to other active populations.

 

 

 

 

 

Use of Rate of Perceived Exertion Measured During Progressive Treadmill Testing to Prescribe Running Intensity 

Alex Hanson, Mary C. Stenson, Donald V. Fischer.

College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN/Saint John's University, Collegeville, MN

Poster presented at the American College of Sports Medicine National Conference in Indianapolis, IN, June 2013

Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) is a method used by coaches to prescribe exercise intensity. RPE is intended to correspond to a target heart rate (HR) range for the athlete. Often the athlete's HR/RPE relationship is determined using a progressive treadmill test. PURPOSE: This study examined the relationship between the athletes' reported session RPE and the momentary RPE during a progressive treadmill test. METHODS: Fourteen Division III female cross country runners performed a maximal-effort progressive treadmill test at the beginning of the season; heart rate and momentary RPE were recorded at two-minute intervals. During a two week period, participants wore Polar Team System HR monitors for recovery, long slow distance, tempo, and interval cross-country practices and reported session RPE at the end of each practice. The average HR for each practice was calculated and compared to the treadmill HR/RPE curve, which allowed us to compare the session RPE and momentary treadmill RPE at the corresponding HRs. RESULTS: Mean treadmill test duration was 22.4 (± 2.5) minutes. A Pearson Correlation revealed a significant positive relationship between treadmill RPE and session RPE during recovery training (r = .385, p = .001); non-significant correlations were found for session RPE during long slow distance (r = .156, p > .05), tempo (r = -.124, p > .05), and interval (r = -.226, p > .05) training. CONCLUSION: An RPE scale based on a shorter-duration progressive treadmill test is significantly and positively related to session RPE at the lowest running intensities, but not related to session RPE at long slow distance, tempo, and interval training intensities. The use of momentary RPE, based on a short-duration progressive treadmill test, may not be an effective method for prescribing training intensities in female cross country runners.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do Division III Cross Country Runners Experience the Intended Coach Prescribed Training Impulse (TRIMP)?

Colleen E. Bouchard, Mitchell A. Hagen, Jacquie M. Donohue, Mary C. Stenson, Donald V. Fischer.

College of Saint Benedict, St. Joeseph, MN/Saint John's University, Collegeville, MN

Poster presented at the American College of Sports Medicine National Conference in Indianapolis, IN, June 2013

Cross country coaches create training plans to induce desired adaptations. However, research suggests athletes do not consistently train as the coach prescribed. PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between coach intended, athlete-perceived, and physiological training impulses (TRIMPs) during recovery, slow long distance, tempo, and interval training performed by 14 Division III female cross country runners. METHODS: A TRIMP weighting scale and an associated rate perceived exertion (RPE) scale were created for each athlete based on the individual's blood lactate curve. Heart rate data were collected using Polar Team System heart rate (HR) monitors during a two week in-season period; athletes were blinded to the HR data. Physiological TRIMPs were calculated by multiplying time spent in each HR zone by the assigned weighting factor. Coach intended TRIMPs for each practice session were calculated by multiplying the time spent training by the weighting factor associated with the prescribed session RPE. . The athlete perceived TRIMPs for each practice session were calculated by multiplying the time spent training by the weighting factor associated with the athlete-perceived session RPE. . RESULTS: One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between the coach intended, athlete-perceived, and physiological mean TRIMPs for recovery [(F (2,204) = 3.359, p < .05], tempo [(F (2, 75) = 19.034; p < .001)], and interval [(F (2, 55) = 4.161, p <.05)] training, but not for slow long distance training [(F (2, 60) = 1.089, p >.05)]. Least Significant Difference post-hoc testing revealed a significant difference (p < .05) in the mean coach intended (52.52 ± 29.73) and physiological (65.80 ± 32.50) TRIMPs during recovery training. Post-hoc testing also revealed significant differences (p < .001) in the mean coach intended and athlete perceived TRIMPS during tempo (C: 109.87 ± 26.54; A: 62.77 ± 30.37) and interval training (C: 72.17 ± 38.16; A: 41.93 ± 26.21). CONCLUSION: During recovery sessions, participants ran at intensities greater than that prescribed by the coach. During tempo and interval training, athletes ran at the coach indicated intensity, but perceived themselves to be training at a lower intensity. Closer monitoring of training intensity may be needed to ensure the appropriate training stimulus is achieved.

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Step Length and 20-Meter Sprint Time in Male Collegiate Track & Field Sprinters
Corey Babcock, Philipp Roye, Duncan Secor

Exercise Science and Sports Studies

Poster presented at the 2013 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN.

Step length has been shown to be a contributing factor to overall sprint performance. PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between first step length and sprint speed through the start and acceleration phases of sprinting. METHODS: Eight male collegiate track and field sprinters (age range 18-22 yrs.) consented to participate in the study. Following a dynamic warm-up, each participant performed three trials of a 20-meter sprint, with 6 minutes rest between trials. Each participant's first step was captured on video and analyzed using Dartfish software. First step length was compared to a 1-meter marker placed adjacent to the starting block; from the comparison marker, first step length was calculated to the nearest centimeter. Step length was then normalized to each participant's leg length, defined as the distance from anterior superior iliac spine to the medial malleolus. A Brower electronic timing system was used to quantify 20-meter sprint time to the nearest tenth of a second. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data were analyzed using a Pearson's r test for correlation.  RESULTS: A significant negative correlation was found between first step length and 20-meter sprint time [r (24) = -.647, p < .01]. CONCLUSIONS:  First step length was found to be significantly related to performance within the start and acceleration phases of a sprint. However, a number of confounding variables may have influenced the effectiveness of the sprint technique during start and acceleration phases. Future research should control for variables such as position of center of mass over the foot, stance type in the starting blocks, shin angle during first step contact, and vertical rise of the center of gravity during the sprint start.

 

 

 

 

 

Movement Characteristics and Prior Injury in Agility and Non-Agility Sports 
Kristina Burk, Sam Imholte, Dave Kahat, Elizabeth Camber 
Exercise Science and Sport Studies
Poster presented at the 2013 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN.

Function Movement Screens (FMS), Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) and peak eccentric ground reaction force (GRF) assess athletes' injury risk. Purpose: To compare the injury risk of female athletes who have sustained serious musculoskeletal injury in the past four years, but who have been medically cleared to participate fully in intercollegiate athletics, to female athletes who have not sustained serious musculoskeletal injury in the past four years. Methods: Seventy-six Division III female athletes clustered into two groups, agility sport athletes (volleyball n = 20, soccer n = 24, basketball n = 8) and non-agility sport athletes (cross country n = 24), performed three box drop vertical jump (BDVJ) test trials onto a force platform from a 30cm box. All BDVJ trials were videotaped and the trial with the greatest vertical displacement was analyzed. LESS scores were calculated for each leg and the LESS injury risk classifications were determined. The FMS consisted of seven scored movement tests used to determine a FMS injury risk classification. Participants completed a health history survey regarding serious musculoskeletal injuries occurring in the past four years. Statistical analysis: Independent t-tests compared mean peak eccentric GRF, FMS injury risk classification, and left and right lower extremity LESS injury risk classifications of the athletes with a history of serious injury to the non-injured athletes within both the agility sport group and non-agility sport group. Results: Within the non-agility sport group, only the left extremity LESS risk classification of previously injured athletes (M = 1.00, SD = 1.00) and non-injured athletes (M = 2.00, SD = 1.18) were significantly different [t(22) = 2.25, p < .05]. Non-significant differences were found in the agility sport group. Conclusion: Medically cleared athletes with a history of serious musculoskeletal injury are at no greater risk for injury than athletes that have not sustained an injury.


 

 

 

 

 

 

The effects of fatigue at the gastro-soleus complex on dynamic balance during a single-leg landing
Katie Schwab, Abbie Palmer, Colleen Bouchard
Exercise Science and Sport Studies
Poster presented at the 2013 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN.

Dynamic postural stability is believed to be important in minimizing risk of injury and optimizing performance. Researchers suggest fatigue has a negative impact on dynamic postural stability. Purpose: To examine the effects of local fatigue at the ankle joint on dynamic postural stability in collegiate female athletes. Methods: After consenting to participate in the study, nine collegiate female athletes (soccer n = 5; lacrosse n = 3; soccer and lacrosse n = 1) completed the test protocol in a non-fatigued and then fatigued state. The protocol consisted of a single maximum height countermovement jump test performed on a Just Jump mat to determine baseline maximum jump height. A single leg drop box landing off a 30 cm box, landing on the non-dominant leg on an AccuPower portable force platform, was held for three seconds. Athletes then performed double leg hops until local muscle fatigue, defined as a 33.3% decrease in maximum jump height compared to baseline, was induced. Immediately after reaching a fatigued state, athletes performed a second single leg drop box landing trial. The force platform recorded movement of the athlete's center of pressure (COP) in the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical directions during landing. The COP scores were combined using the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI) to provide a composite dynamic postural stability score for each athlete in both the non-fatigued and fatigued condition. Statistical Analysis: A dependent t-test and an effect size measure were used to compare the non-fatigued and fatigued condition DPSI scores. Results: A non-significant difference between non-fatigued DPSI scores (M = 3.212, SD = 0.594) and fatigued DPSI scores (M = 3.13, SD =
0.533) was found [t(8)= .598, p > .05, d = 0.15]. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that local fatigue at the gastro-soleus complex does not affect dynamic stability in collegiate female athletes.

 

 

 

 

 

Foot Strike Patterns of Division III Female Cross Country Runners: Comparison of Three Footwear Conditions
Danielle Busch, Rhiannon LeGarde, Jen Hall
Exercise Science and Sport Studies
Poster presented at the 2013 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN.

Many collegiate cross country runners practice in standard running shoes, but compete in track spikes.  However, different types of footwear may produce different foot strike patterns and different foot strike patterns have been associated with different types of running injuries. PURPOSE: This study examined the foot strike patterns of female cross country runners while running shod, with track spikes, and barefoot.  METHODS: Eleven female Division III cross country runners were videotaped from the waist down while running at a self-determined "race pace" around a 200 meter indoor track under three footwear conditions: with traditional running shoes, with track spikes, and barefoot. Two or three foot strikes were recorded per participant. The order of footwear conditions was counterbalanced. The video images were analyzed using Dartfish software and the foot strike pattern for each participant was classified (3 = rearfoot, 2 = midfoot, or 1 = forefoot) for each of the three conditions.  STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A Friedman's Test was used to test for differences in foot strike location between the footwear groups. RESULTS: A significant difference was found between the three groups [χ2 (2, N = 11) = 8.00, p =.018] with descriptive values indicating a progression from rearfoot to forefoot strike when changing from shod (M= 2.909,  SD= 0.301) to track spikes (M= 2.454, SD= 0.820) to barefoot (M= 2.272, SD= 0.786) footwear conditions. CONCLUSION: The three footwear conditions resulted in significantly different foot strike patterns during race-pace running of Division III female cross country runners.  This finding may have practical implications for athletes, coaches, and athletic trainers as they consider specificity of training and risk factors associated with running injuries.

 

 

 

 

 

The Relationship of Core Stability to Static and Dynamic Balance
Melanie Berscheit, Hannah Von Arb, Luke Weyrauch
Exercise Science and Sport Studies
Poster presented at the 2013 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN.

 The ability to maintain balance is prerequisite to many functional activities. Core stability may be a contributing factor to both static and dynamic balance. PURPOSE: The present study was designed to examine the relationship of core stability to static and dynamic balance in recreationally active young adult men and women. METHODS: Thirty recreationally active individuals (males n =15; females n = 15) ranging in age from 18 to 23 years participated in this study. Static balance was tested with the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Three BESS trials were conducted with participants balancing on their non-dominant leg; the average number of balance errors was recorded. Dynamic balance was tested by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Participants balanced on their non-dominant leg and performed three trials of reaching with their dominant leg in the lateral and then the medial directions; the distance reach for the three trials in each direction were averaged and recorded. The BESS and SEBT tests were conducted in counterbalance order. The duration of a single, maximal effort side plank was used to test frontal plane stability on the same side as the subject's non-dominant leg. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Bivariate correlation was used to examine the relationship of BESS and SEBT scores to side plank time. A value of p < 0.05 was used for determining statistical significance. RESULTS: Average BESS scores were not significantly correlated with the time the side plank was held, [r(30) = -.185, p = .329]. There was also no significant correlation between side plank time and SEBT reach distance in the medial direction [r(30) = .233, p = .215] or in the lateral direction
[r(30) = .151, p = .425]. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that there is not a significant relationship between core stability and either static or dynamic balance in recreationally active young adults.

 

 

 

 

 

Compensatory Movement Patterns of Agility and Non-Agility Sport Athletes
Thomas Broback, Matthew Hanowski, Anna Krieger
Exercise Science and Sport Studies
Poster presented at the 2013 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN.

The purpose of this study was to compare the compensatory movement patterns of agility sport athletes to non-agility sport athletes. METHODS: Agility sport athletes [volleyball n = 20, soccer n = 24, and basketball n = 8] and non-agility sport athletes [cross country n = 24] performed three box drop vertical jump test (BDVJ) trials from a 30cm platform.  All BDVJ trials were videotaped, and the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) was used to analyze the trial with the greatest vertical displacement. Individual LESS composite scores were calculated for each leg from seventeen separately scored items, and the LESS relative injury risk scores were determined. The FMS consisted of seven movement tests that were analyzed and scored on a three point scale. Individual test scores were summed to create a composite FMS score, and the FMS relative injury risk scores were determined. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Independent t-tests were used to compare the mean scores of agility to non-agility athletes. RESULTS: A non-significant difference was found between the mean composite FMS and relative risk FMS scores of agility sport athletes (M = 15.1, SD = 2.10; M = 0.40, SD = 0.495) and non-agility sport athletes (M = 15.3, SD = 1.37; M = 0.25, SD = 0.442) [t(74) = 0.63, p = .53; t(74) = 1.36, p = .18]. Mean left leg composite LESS and LESS relative risk scores of agility sport athletes (M = 5.63, SD = 1.59; M = 1.50, SD = 1.08) and non-agility sport athletes (M = 5.25, SD = 1.73; M = 1.46, SD = 1.18) were not significantly different  [t(74) = 0.96, p = .34; t(74) = 0.15, p = .88]. Similarly, mean right leg composite LESS and LESS relative risk scores of agility sport athletes (M = 5.69, SD = 1.59; M = 1.56, SD = 1.09) and non-agility sport athletes (M = 5.50, SD = 1.72; M = 1.58, SD = 1.10) were not significantly different [t(74) = 0.48, p = .63; t(74) = .095, p = .93]. CONCLUSION: Athletes from agility and non-agility sports have similar movement characteristics and injury risk.

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Comparison of Injury Risk Determined by Laboratory and Field Tests

Maren Iverson, Tori Grootwassink, Alex Hanson, Colleen Bouchard

Exercise Science and Sport Studies
Poster presented at the 2013 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN. 

College athletic programs commonly use laboratory and field tests to assess athletes' injury risk. Purpose: To determine the relationship between variables measured by three injury risk assessments: Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), vertical ground reaction force (GRFv), and Functional Movement Screen (FMS). Methods: Seventy-six Division III female athletes (basketball n = 8, soccer n = 25, cross-country n =23, and volleyball n = 20) performed three box drop vertical jump (BDVJ) trails from a 30cm box onto an AccuPower force platform. All BDVJ trials were videotaped; the trial with the greatest vertical displacement was analyzed. LESS scores were calculated for each leg from seventeen separately scored items from which LESS injury risk classification was determined for each leg (0 = low risk; 3 = high risk). The FMS consisted of seven movement tests that were analyzed and scored, and used to determine FMS injury risk classification (0 = low risk; 1 = high risk). Statistical Analysis: Bivariate correlations were used to examine the relationships between test variables. Results: Significant positive relationships were found between peak eccentric GRFv (M = 1813.8 SD = 798.78) and both right leg (M = 1.57 SD = 1.087) and left leg (M = 1.49 SD = 1.101) LESS injury risk classification [r(76) = .318, p = .005; r(76) = .284, p = .013]. A significant negative correlation was found between peak eccentric GRFv and FMS injury risk classification (M =.36 SD =.482) [r(76) = -.229, p = .047]. Non-significant correlations were found between FMS injury risk classification and both right leg and left leg LESS injury risk classifications [r(76) = .018, p=.875; r(76) = .122, p = .294]. Conclusion:  LESS risk scores and peak eccentric GRFv are positively related and, therefore, may assess similar or related injury risk factors. FMS risk scores and peak eccentric GRFv are negatively related and, therefore, may assess distinctly different injury risk factors.

 

 

 

 

 

Effect of Ankle Taping On Vertical Jump Performance Before and After Participation in Basketball Drills
Hannah Vanderheyden, Charles Dudek
Exercise Science and Sport Studies
Poster presented at the 2013 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN.

Ankle taping is a common injury prevention and treatment method that reduces ankle range of motion. However, the effect of ankle taping on exercise performance is not well studied. Purpose: To examine the effects of ankle taping on countermovement vertical jump (VJ) performance before and after a basketball specific warm-up. Methods: Ten Division III male collegiate basketball players consented to participate in the study. After a general warm-up, participants completed three maximal VJ test trials on a Just Jump contact mat to determine baseline maximal jump height; the best of the three trials was recorded in centimeters. Participants then had both ankles taped and maximal VJ was measured again after participants had both ankles taped by an athletic trainer. The participants then performed a 10 minute basketball specific dynamic warm-up with their ankles taped and maximal VJ was measured a third time. Statistical Analysis: A One-Way Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance with a Bonferroni post-hoc analysis was used. Results:  VJ was significantly different between the three trials (F(2, 18) = 37.87, p < .001). VJ performance significantly (p < .001) decreased immediately after taping (Baseline: M = 62.76, SD = 4.63). After taping: M = 58.92, SD = 4.96) and remained significantly (p < .050) lower than baseline after the dynamic warm-up (M = 61.39, SD = 3.46). Conclusion: Ankle taping has a detrimental effect on VJ performance in male collegiate basketball athletes, both immediately after taping and after a basketball specific dynamic warm-up.