The College of Saint Benedict / Saint John's University Education Department is committed to developing teacher candidates who make professional decisions which help all students achieve their full potential as persons and as responsible world citizens in a democratic society. Computer technology has become a major force in communicating the ideas and information that shape our lives, our society, and our world. Teachers must understand the power of digital technology and be able to use it effectively if they are to truly help all students achieve their potential. Herein lies the need which drives the CSB/SJU Education Department Technology Plan: we need to assure that our teacher candidates have the knowledge and skills to effectively use digital technology in helping all students achieve their potential and take their place as responsible citizens.
This technology plan, developed by the CSB/SJU Education Department in collaboration with P-12 educators and the CSB/SJU Information Technology (IT) Services, is a work in progress. Like the technology for which it plans, it will continue to evolve as it reflects a rapidly growing knowledge-base as well as the emerging needs of P-12 students and educators.
The CSB/SJU Education Department Technology Plan begins with a vision for technology in P-12 education. This vision examines the role of technology in the society and world and the relationship to schools. It also includes the emerging directions we envision P-12 schools moving with technology.
Next we describe our own guiding vision for using technology in ways that will transform the way we do teacher education. If we truly believe that P-12 education will change with technology, then the ways in which we prepare P-12 teacher candidates must also change to reflect our vision of that transformation. We envision the transformation of teacher-learner roles and attitudes within our teacher education program through the integration and wide usage of multi-media information and communication technologies.
This plan begins with our vision and then identifies the goals and objectives that will move us forward in realizing that vision. These goals and objective identified are somewhat audacious for a teacher education program in relatively small liberal arts colleges. Nonetheless, we commit ourselves to them with the full support of the strategic plan of CSB/SJU IT Services (CSB/SJU, 1997) and that of the joint institutional strategic plan of the two colleges (CSB/SJU, 1999). The plan also includes an inventory of our current technology resources. Finally, the plan concludes with our strategies for using technology to support our commitment to the continuous improvement of our teacher education program.
A Vision for Technology in P-12 Education
The Need for Technological Literacy
Technology is now a fact of life that is rapidly transforming the way Americans live, work, and play (U.S. Department of Education, 1996). There is hardly any aspect of our culture or way of life that has not been directly affected by technological developments over the past 20 years. Our homes, cars, food, language, and even our relationships with each other have been impacted by technological developments that have occurred in our own lifetimes. Business, industry, health care, communications, entertainment, the arts, transportation, agriculture, government and politics, journalism, television, research and publishing, and on and on have all changed and continue to be transformed through developments in technology. Life is not the same. Society and the world are not the same. Every aspect of life continues to be transformed with and through technology.
Technological literacy is an imperative for functioning effectively in our technology age. Dugger (1997) declared, "A technological literacy is considered to be critical to the success of individuals, entire societies, and to the Earth's ecological balance." Technological literacy is imperative for communication. It is imperative for maintaining an informed citizenship. It is imperative for understanding and working effectively within our economy. With all these imperatives, technological literacy has become an essential mandate for American schools. (U.S. Department of Education, 1996) has called the goal of achieving technological literacy "a national priority."
Technology in Schools
Interestingly, schools and learning are areas that have been among the least affected by developments in computer technology over the past 20 years. The technological revolution has had little impact on the learning that has taken place in schools for a large majority of students during this time. While many schools were quick to place a computer or two in classrooms 20 years ago, those computers were often made into play things for students to use after they had finished their paper and pencil work. The power of computers has rarely been a force used to transform student learning.
While it is reasonable to expect students to develop the computer and technological literacy needed to function effectively in a high tech world, the question of whether computer technology can really improve student learning is another matter altogether. Does computer technology really improve student learning in ways that justify the investment of billions of dollars in it? What is the value of computer technology for student learning?
Many studies have been done to assess the impact of computer technology on student learning. As with most research, the findings of well executed studies do not, for the most part, demonstrate the absolute value of computer technology in-and-of-itself for learning. Rather, these studies generally provide evidence that technology has a positive impact on student learning in certain prescribed contexts and under specific conditions. Thus, the more appropriate question is: How, and in what ways can computer technology best be utilized to improve student learning?
A growing number of studies have been done in recent years on the effectiveness of computer technology in enhancing or improving student learning. Three meta-analyses of these studies (Kimble, 1999, Schacter, 1999, and Mergendoller,1997) discussed the findings and conclusions of various studies and meta-analyses on the effectiveness of different strategies for using computer technology to improve or enhance student learning. These studies considered a variety of factors including specific software, learning strategies, grouping, content area, age and grade level, literacy, multimedia features, skills, distance learning, and more. Together, the findings and conclusions of these studies form the foundation of a developing knowledge-base about the effective use of computers in learning. This knowledge-base in turn, must inform the decisions of pre-service teachers and professional educators about the best practices impacting student learning.
Clearly, teachers must be prepared to make good decisions about using technology to enhance and improve student learning. Teachers can only make good instructional decisions when they understand student learning, the content they seek to teach, and the effective use of various pedagogies and technologies for connecting student learning with specific content. To do this, teachers themselves must be adept at pedagogical uses of technology. They must understand the power of technology and the ways it can be used to improve student learning. Teachers themselves must be both technologically and pedagogically literate.
Billions of dollars have been spent in the past 10 years on wiring schools with computer technology. Today, 95 percent of American schools and 72 percent of classrooms are connected to the Internet (CEO Forum, 2000a). Nonetheless, only 30 percent of American teachers report using the Internet for student research, and a meager 16 percent use it for lesson planning.
A major reason teachers have used computer technology so little is that despite the tremendous commitment of resources to placing computers in schools, very little has been invested in providing teachers with the training and resources to actually use technology in ways that help students learn. The Office of Technology Assessment reported that "... in the enthusiasm to get technology to students, and in the context of limited resources, teacher issues have been shortchanged." Technology training for teachers has often been minimized by emphasizing general computer literacy or familiarity with particular applications. Rarely has technology training addressed empowering teacher effectiveness. "To use new technologies well, teachers not only need access to them, but they also need opportunities to discover what the technologies can do, learn how to operate them, and experiment with ways to apply them" (Office of Technology Assessment, 1995)
In recognizing the importance of appropriate teacher training to achieve technological literacy for students, the United States Department of Education identified four major goals. The first of those goals was for all teachers in the nation to have the training and support they need to help students learn using computers and the information highway (U.S. Department of Education, 1996). This technology plan is our response to this goal for the future teachers we prepare.
Developing a Vision with Changing Technologies
The only constant about computer technology is that it is constantly changing. State-of-the-art technology is always faster, smaller, more powerful, and more readily accessible than the technologies which came before it. Today's technologically current classrooms, like today's technologically current teachers and technologically literate students are inadequately prepared unless they anticipate and plan to change and grow along with technological developments. A plan for the future of technology in education must be fluid and envision constant change. The vision must resist being limited to the acquisition of specific hardwares, software applications, or steps to be learned for using those technologies. Rather, a vision for the future of technology in education should describe the qualities of learning that are desired and ways technological developments might be viewed as a means to address those qualities.
Likewise, a vision for the future of technology in education must make clear that it is educational values that drive the technology plan, rather than the technology driving the educational plan. Educational technology should always and only be used in ways that enhance the kinds of learning we value. Educational technology should be used to accomplish solid educational goals. Educational technology should not be used in schools just because it is available. Learning is the goal to be measured, not the amount of technology used (Thornburg, 1999).
Technology and P-12 Educational Values and Goals
The world is a complex place that is undergoing much change. Changes in society constantly place new demands on schools. And yet, in the midst of all these changes and new demands, schools are now held to a higher level of scrutiny and accountability than ever before. At the dawn of the 21st century, the CSB/SJU Education Department has identified three core values as the guideposts for evaluating the quality and effectiveness of P-12 schools in this changing world. These values include:
1. equity of learning opportunities,
2. respect for human dignity with appreciation for human diversity, and
3. responsible world citizenship in a democratic society
We see these values as the guideposts for much of current educational research, policy making, and curriculum development and reform. As such, we believe these values are at the core of the best educational decision making today. Technology goals for P-12 schools should use educational technologies to effectively address these values:
1. That technology resources be planned for and used by schools in ways that promote equity of learning opportunities.
By this we mean that all students have access to the technologies that can assist them in learning to their full potential. Educators must understand and look for ways to use various technologies that support and address individual learning needs and styles so as to assist all students in meeting various curricular learning standards.
2. That technology resources be planned for and used by schools in ways that recognize and support the dignity of all persons.
By this we mean that technologies are to be used in ways that promote respect for human differences. Educators must understand and look for ways to use various technologies in ways that recognize and celebrate the human dignity of all persons. Educators must model and teach ethical uses of technology.
3. That technology resources be planned for and used by schools in ways that promote responsible citizenship.
Educators must understand and look for ways to use various technologies to promote creativity, critical thinking, and informed decision making in addressing issues of social justice, care for the environment, and aesthetics. Students must learn to use technology to access information and evaluate its accuracy and significance so that they can make informed decisions, and working with others and alone, creatively solve problems about real world issues.
The Future of P-12 Education and Technology
Technology has a history of holding much promise for future of education. The "magic lantern" (the 19th century predecessor to the 20th century slide projector), was introduced into the academic arena "with the promise of bringing the world to students through spectacular images onto the classroom wall." But the magic lantern went the way of many other technologies of our own time which entered classrooms with the same promise to revolutionize learning (e.g., filmstrip projectors, 16 mm movie projectors, reel-to-reel recorders, and Commodore computers) (Kent & McNergney, 1999). All of these technologies failed to replace either "chalk talk" or textbooks as the primary tools of teachers. Will today's computer technologies be any different? Will they revolutionize learning?
Perhaps one reason the technologies of the past were so short-lived is that they offered no versatility. They delivered information in one form and only in that one form. Furthermore, the information they delivered was not, for the most part, time sensitive. Updating the information those technologies could deliver was an expensive and controlled endeavor. As a result, the technologies of the past merely supplemented rather than replaced the primary technologies of chalkboards and books.
Computer technologies, on the other hand, are already much more versatile than these earlier technologies, and they are becoming even more so. One computer can be used to view images from art museums and read newspapers from around the world. The same computer can also be used to write poetry, compose music, listen to a symphony, send a message to a friend, place orders, file tax returns, and the list goes on. Furthermore, all of these activities can be done relatively easily and at any time. Indeed, as computers continue to evolve, they become capable of more applications performed at even faster speeds than most of us can even dream possible. And computer technology is only in its infancy. . . .
Developments in technology have made time a rapidly changing variable. Most schools operate with time functioning as a constant related to learning. That is to say, learning is prescribed and measured within constant or set periods of time (quarters, semesters, and years). Students are tested to determine how well they can demonstrate learning during those time periods. The time period is a constant, as is the material that is covered and on which students are tested. The variable is the level of learning that students demonstrate during the set time period. After all is said and done, students are then sorted (via grades) by their level of performance within these standard periods of time. Every student's performance is measured within a prescribed standard of time, and every student is identified with quantified position on a graded scale.
This method of sorting students comes from an Industrial Age model of schooling (Thornburg, 1999) and does not bide well with our core values of equity, respect for human dignity/diversity, and responsible world citizenship. Schooling that sorts students places greater and lesser values on individual differences. It does not respect differences in individual learning styles. It does not provide equitable learning opportunities. It does not prepare all students for responsible world citizenship. It does, however, identify degrees of success, with winners and losers.
Our age of evolving technologies allows us to imagine a new model of education where student learning is the standard, the constant, and the focus of educators. In this new model, time is a variable related to high standards of student learning. Every student will be expected to learn to a high standard, and will be provided appropriate opportunities to do so. It is the way each student learns and the time it takes that will vary from student to student. The educator's role in this model is to appropriately facilitate the learning of each student to recognized high standards.
High standards of learning have already been established by various national professional teacher associations (e.g., National Council for the Social Studies, National Council of Teachers of English, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, National Science Teachers Association, etc.). The learning standards established by these organizations prescribe what students need to know and what they need to do. Emerging computer technologies allow educators to accommodate the learning styles and diverse needs of all students in meeting these standards.
In the past, educators spoke of using technology to bring the world into the classroom. Now, we can speak of using technology to make the world into the classroom. Significant student learning need no longer be limited to conventional classrooms or class periods. Rather, students can now access any major library in the world through the web at what ever time is most helpful for them. Likewise, students can now directly access renowned experts addressing major issues and controversies within their field; students can participate in video conferences or discussions about any topic at anytime of day or night; they can see current historic or scientific events as they happen or at any other time that meets their needs. Classroom walls and clocks, that have confined learning to particular spaces and times, can confine no longer. Technology, which continues to get smaller and grow evermore powerful, makes connectivity to learning events and activities possible at any time and from any place.
This "any time, any place" learning is becoming more and more possible because of technological developments which make accessing information and communication through computers faster, more dependable, and of better quality than ever before. Student learning activities need no longer be limited by either geography or time. These developments also make it possible for educators to plan to engage students' diverse learning styles as well as support the development of their multiple intelligences. With multimedia projects, for example, student creativity can be engaged and developed.
In addition to using technology to enhance student learning, educators can themselves share in the same benefits of accessing information and communicating anytime, anyplace. Educators can engage and collaborate with each other on student learning through electronic chat rooms, listservs and on-line conferences. They can maintain contact with parents through e-mail and video-conferencing. They can also keep themselves up-to-date with the latest developments on any topic which students are learning.
In summary, our vision for P-12 education is that technology will transform schooling by re-defining the contextual places and times in which students and educators alike can access information, can communicate with each other, and can learn. Educators must be prepared to make decisions that will actively guide, direct, and effect this transformation in their respective schools. They will be prepared for this as they develop a thorough understanding of the diverse ways in which students learn, as well as the standards of excellence to which student learning is to be directed, and the ways technology can be used to creatively engage students in achieving the standards of excellence in classrooms that are unbounded by time and geography.
A Vision for Technology in Teacher Education at CSB/SJU
Teacher candidates must be prepared to make decisions that will guide, direct, and effect the transformation of learning so all students can achieve their full potential as persons and as responsible world citizens in a democratic society. We have already discussed ways in which technology has been transforming the world and the potential it has for transforming education. We intend that our teacher education program will prepare teacher candidates for making decisions to use technology that will effect this transformation.
Our vision of preparing teacher candidates to make decisions for effectively using technology includes three major components: a vision of our program for delivering the knowledge and skills teacher candidates will need; a vision of the technology resources needed to carry out the program; and a vision for assessing the effectiveness of our program outcomes.
There are two major schools of thought on how best to prepare pre-service teachers to effectively integrate technology into their teaching (Brush, 1998). One approach is for pre-service teachers to take a course that provides them with technology skills and experiences in a variety of content domains and gives them opportunities to use technology in lesson design and implementation. The advantage of this approach is that pre-service teachers are able to learn about technology and instruction from an instructor who has specialized in that area. While this approach affords pre-service teachers the opportunity to learn from a master in technology instruction, they may experience technology instruction only in that one course. This approach does not, however, provide pre-service teachers with experiences of technology integrated into content learning.
The other major school of thought is that pre-service teachers ought to learn how to effectively integrate technology into teaching through the various content methods courses they take. These courses, taught by faculty who are steeped in strategies to facilitate learning in specific content areas, do not focus on technology alone, but focus instead on various methods for teaching specific contents. The advantage of this approach is that pre-service teachers are able to learn strategies for integrating technology into the teaching of all content areas (CEO Forum, 2000b). While this approach makes strong connections between technology and content, methods instructors are often not well-versed in technology instruction.
The CSB/SJU Education Department has chosen to go this latter route in the belief that technology will be most effectively integrated into teaching when it is understood as one of many pedagogical tools for delivering content instruction to students. The challenge for us is that few of our methods instructors are well-versed in technology instruction. Nonetheless, in accordance with our "Teacher as Decision Maker" conceptual model, we believe our teacher education program will be most effective in developing strong teacher candidates when we as a faculty take the leap and learn effective ways of incorporating technology into our own instruction. As a faculty, we will model best practices of teaching with technology in our areas of expertise. We are committed to walking the talk, even as we envision a need for faculty development with technology.
By programmatically incorporating technology into the course work (and especially into the methods classes) of pre-service teachers, we will strengthen our program even more. Our vision also includes a programmatic emphasis on incorporating technology components into pre-student teaching clinical and practicum teaching experiences in our partner P-12 schools. Through these experiences, pre-service teachers learn to apply their knowledge of content and pedagogy and follow-up with reflection and assessment of their teaching experiences. Because these experiences are so important in forming and re-forming our pre-service teachers' ideas and dispositions about teaching, we envision programmatically integrating effective uses of technology into these experiences. Such experiences establish normative expectations of teaching for the pre-service teachers. Clearly, we want the effective integration of technology into instruction to be a part of those normative expectations.
Program Outcomes for Teacher Candidate Graduates
Realizing our vision of using technology to transform P-12 learning begins with a description of the specific CSB/SJU Education Department Program outcomes for teacher candidates with regard to technology and learning. Our aim is to prepare teacher candidates who have the knowledge and skills to make decisions for using technology to most effectively help all students achieve their full potential as persons and as responsible world citizens in a democratic society. Toward this aim, we have identified six programmatic outcomes along with the respective standards for each of those outcomes. We have adopted the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) developed by the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE, 2000) as our program outcomes:
Teacher candidates who demonstrate a sound understanding of technology operations and concepts.
Teacher candidates who plan and design effective learning environments and experiences supported by technology.
Teacher candidates who implement curriculum plans that include methods and strategies for applying technology to maximize student learning.
Teacher candidates who apply technology to facilitate a variety of effective assessment and evaluation strategies.
Teacher candidates who use technology to enhance their productivity and professional practice.
Teacher candidates who understand the social, ethical, legal, and human issues surrounding the use of technology in P-12 schools and apply those principles in practice.
Each program outcome is to be measured according to the NET Standards (See Appendix 1).
In order to achieve these outcomes for all our teacher candidates, we have identified the following seven goals (G) along with the stated corresponding objectives:
G 1: To provide all pre-service teachers with appropriate opportunities to learn, apply, and be assessed on the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS).
1.1: By aligning the NETS with the syllabi of courses required of pre-service teachers.
1.2: By integrating throughout the teacher education programs requirements pre-service teachers use various productivity, communications, and information accession applications.
1.3: By requiring pre-service teachers to demonstrate in all methods courses appropriate and effective uses of technology integrated throughout the teaching process (i.e., instructional planning, student learning activities, and assessment of student learning).
G 2: To annually assess the current state of technology integration in courses taken by pre-service teachers.
2.1: By surveying Education Department faculty on their uses of technology in teaching.
2.2: By developing a grid which records the various technologies used by Education Department faculty members.
G 3: To provide staff development for Education Department faculty that will lead to greater implementation of best practices for using technology in teaching.
3.1: By assessing the readiness (experience, expertise, and confidence) of Education Department faculty members for effectively using computer resources in teaching pre-service teachers.
3.2: By collaborating with IT Services and/or LES in providing opportunities and incentives for faculty to learn about and implement the best practices for using technology in teaching.
3.3: By encouraging and supporting Education Department faculty collaboration in setting individual technology goals for personal and professional development.
G 4: To give high priority to recognizing and encouraging both the effective and the creative uses of technology by Education Department faculty.
4.1: By identifying effective and creative uses of technology in teaching and research as a significant priority for consideration in the recruitment and hiring of new faculty.
4.2: By identifying effective and creative uses of technology in teaching and research as a significant priority for consideration in faculty reviews.
G 5: To work with partner schools in developing and/or implementing their respective plans for effective integration of technology in P-12 teaching.
5.1: By addressing ways in which the CSB/SJU Education Department can appropriately support and encourage the effective integration of technology in P-12 teaching in partnership agreements.
5.2: By working with partner schools to provide pre-service teachers opportunities to observe, design, and deliver P-12 instruction that incorporates best practices technology.
G 6: To provide Education Department faculty and students ready and appropriate access to the best available technologies and support for effective research, personal productivity, and teaching.
6.1: By assuring that each faculty member's office is equipped with a fully networked multi-media PC that is never more than three years old.
6.2: By assuring that pre-service teachers have adequate access to state-of-the-art computer labs as well as personal network connection capabilities in all on-campus housing.
6.3: By assuring that classrooms are adequately supported with technology that can be readily used to effectively support instruction.
6.4: By assuring faculty and students with same-day technical support from appropriately trained and knowledgeable personnel.
6.5: By participating in a budget planning process that will provide adequate resources to Education Department technology priorities.
G 7: To establish annual benchmarks and employ a review process for assessing the preparation and readiness of pre-service teachers to teach effectively with technology.
7.1 By implementing use of the School Technology and Readiness (STaR) Chart, a self-assessment tool for colleges of education, (CEO Forum, 2000b). (Appendix 2)
7.2: By identifying annual goals to strengthen the preparation for technology readiness of pre-service teachers.
Technology and Continuous Program Improvement
The CSB/SJU Education Department has a strong tradition of educating pre-service teachers to be effective decision makers. We seek to develop teachers who have a strong and well grounded knowledge base, as well as the vision and skills to help all students achieve their full potential as persons and as world citizens in a democratic society. Doing this in a world which is constantly changing requires on-going program assessment with an eye on continuous improvement. Digital technology is a key component in changing this world. Digital technology is also a critical tool for on-going assessment and improvement of our teacher education programs so that we are able to continue providing our students with the resources for effective decision making in a changing world.
Digital technology is an assessment tool which empowers us to continuously improve our teacher education programs first and foremost by facilitating communication between all constituencies of our programs: students and faculty, partnership schools, student teachers, and professional associations, as well as agencies of government, business, and industry. Through digital communications, we are all able to be better informed of emerging and on-going issues affecting P-12 education and teacher education programs.
Digital technology is also a tool through which we can access and process information related to course and program outcomes. Electronic portfolios, Public Folders, and a wide array of software applications allow us to access information over time about student outcomes and process that information to make judgments about improving programmatic effectiveness.
We are currently in the process of digitalizing student teacher portfolio assessments, cooperating teacher assessments, and first year teacher assessments. Our goal in doing this is to help us move from an intuitive approach to a data driven approach of program needs assessment. There is much work to do here, but annual reviews and updates to this technology plan will help us to keep this work in the forefront.
School Technology and Readiness (STaR) Chart, a self-assessment tool for colleges of education (CEO Forum 2000b)
Relevant Technology Resources Currently Available to CSB/SJU Teacher Education Students (August, 2000)
1. Academic Applications:
EZ Language (French, German, Italian, Japanese, Russian, Spanish)
Reading With Phonics
Houghton-Mifflin Math Tutorial
2. Database Tools:
Lotus Approach 97
Microsoft Access 97
3. E-mail Scheduler Applications
4. Graphic Tools
Adobe Illustrator 7.0.1
Adobe Photoshop 5.0
Lview Pro 1.C5
Microsoft Photo Editor
Paintshop Pro 5
5. Information Tools
6. Internet Browsers
1. Internet Explorer 4.0
2. Netscape Navigator 4.05
7. Internet Tools
Adobe Acrobat Reader 3.01
8. Presentation Tools
Lotus Freelance Graphics 97
Microsoft PowerPoint 97
9. Publication Tools
Adobe Pagemaker 6.5
Calendar Creator 5.0
10. Spreadsheet Applications
Lotus 1-2-3 97
Microsoft Excel 97
11. Web Publication Tools
Claris Homepage 97
12. Word-Processing Applications
Corell WordPerfect 8.0
Microsoft Word 97
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29. Stat USA
STAT-USA/Internet is a service of the U.S. Department of Commerce. The site provides authoritative information from the federal government on the economy, business, and trade. Major links include State of the Nation and Globus & NTDB.
This service allows users to search summaries of statistical publications and also link to the full-text of selected publications on both Statistical Universe and government Web sites.
UnCover contains brief descriptive information on more than 7,000,000 articles which have appeared in over 17,000 multidisciplinary journals since Fall 1988. Although UnCover provides many options for purchasing full-text, it is also possible to search the database for citations at no charge.
32. Web of Science
The Web of Science provides access to Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and Arts & Humanities Citation Index for the years 1995-2000. Using Web of Science, users may search large databases of citations and abstracts and follow citation histories. For a given work, it may be possible to identify both works cited ("parent" works) and later citing works ("child" works).
Women Writers Online, the text base of the Women Writers Project, includes all WWP texts currently available online. The texts span a period from 1400 to 1850. A special subset of the larger project is the Renaissance Women Online collection. Women Writers Online has an extensive contents page. Both simple and complex search options are available.
From the source: "World News Connection (WNC) is an online news service, only accessible via the World Wide Web, that offers an extensive array of translated and English-language news and information. Particularly effective in its coverage of local media sources, WNC provides you with the power to identify what really is happening in a specific country or region. Compiled from thousands of non-U.S. media sources, the information in WNC covers significant socioeconomic, political, scientific, technical, and environmental issues and events." The material in WNC is provided by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service, a U.S. government agency.
CDROM Data Bases
1. ABC Pol Sci
From the source: "ABC POL SCI ON DISC is a bibliographic database covering the world's current periodical literature in the fields of political science and government, as well as related disciplines such as law, sociology, and economics. It reproduces and indexes the tables of contents of over 300 international journals in the original languages."
2. America: History and Life
AHL is a bibliographic database containing article abstracts, as well as citations to reviews and dissertations on the history of the United States and Canada from prehistoric times to the present. Articles are abstracted from more than 2,400 journals.
3. Education Department CDROM Inventory
The Education Department currently has 111 K-12 CDROMs available for student and faculty use.
Brush, T. A. (1998). Teaching preservice teachers to use technology in the classroom. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 6(4), 243-58.
CEO Forum. (2000a). The power of digital learning: Integrating digital content (http://www.ceoforum.org/reports.cfm?RID=4). Washington, DC: CEO Forum on Education and Technology.
CEO Forum. (2000b). Teacher preparation STaR Chart: A self-assessment tool for colleges of education
(http://www.ceoforum.org/reports.cfm?RID=4). Washington, DC: The CEO Forum on Education and Technology.
CSB/SJU. (1999). Building the foundation: Strategic plan 2000-2003 (Internal Document). St. Joseph / Collegeville, MN: College of St. Benedict / St. John's University.
CSB/SJU, (1997). Strategic plan for information technology (Internal Document ). Collegeville, MN: College of Saint Benedict / Saint John's University.
Dugger, W. E. J. (1997). The next step: Developing standards for technology education. Technology Teacher, 56(6), 10-11, 14, 16-18.
ISTE. (2000). National Educational Technology Standards for Students.
(http://www.iste.org/Standards/index.html) : International Society for Technology in Education.
Kent, T. W., & McNergney, R. F. (1999). Will technology really change education? From blackboard to web. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Kimble, C. (1999). The impact of technology on learning: Making sense of the research (Policy Brief ). Aurora, IL: Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory.
Mergendoller, J. R. (1997). Technology and learning: The research. Education Digest, 62(8), 12-15.
Office of Technology Assessment. (1995). Teachers and technology: Making the connection. (http://www.wws.princeton.edu/~ota/disk1/1995/9541.html): Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Schacter, J. (1999). The impact of education technology on student achievement: What the most current research has to say. (http://www.mff.org/publications/publications.taf?page=161): Milken Exchange on Education Technology.
Thornburg, D. D. (1999, December 1-2). Technology in K-12 education: Envisioning a new future. (http://www.air.org/forum/abthornburg.htm) Paper presented at The Forum on Technology in Education: Envisioning the Future, Washington, DC.
U.S. Department of Education. (1996). Getting America's students ready for the 21st century: Meeting the technology literacy challenge (http://www.ed.gov/Technology/Plan/NatTechPlan). Washington, DC.